Europe

School, Segregation and Second-Generation Belgian Muslims

In order to tackle social divisions, Belgium must address shocking inequalities and fundamentally reform its discriminatory education system.   Belgium has more jihadist fighters per head than any other European country. They are mostly “second-generation” Moroccans. They are Belgian officially, …

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Power, Politics and Ottoman Nostalgia in Turkey

Since the Justice and Development Party (AKP) came to power in Turkey’s 2002 election, Ottoman nostalgia has played an increasing role in state policy. Often termed “neo-Ottomanism”, this was initially used to define the AKP’s foreign policy. Preaching the principle …

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Second Generation Muslim: a tyrannical identity?

The trap of cultural determinism “Ethnic identity, as much as any other collective identity, is an object of manipulation by individuals, who, being free, stay largely undefinable” (M.Giraud) The recent dramatic events in France have redirected public attention to the issues …

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Paris Shootings: The Struggle for the Global Jihad

On January 7th 2015, the Kouachi brothers stormed the Charlie Hebdo editorial board and attempted to kill everyone in the room. The satirical weekly newspaper was known for its controversial drawings and cartoons, approaching religions with humour and sarcasm. This led them to represent and caricature Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam. For instance, in 2011 they released a …

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